VIIRS I-Band 375 m Active Fire Data

What is the the VIIRS 375 m active fire product?

The VIIRS 375 m (VNP14IMGTDL_NRT) active fire product is the latest product to be added to FIRMS. It provides data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor aboard the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The 375 m data complements MODIS fire detections; they both show good agreement in hotspot detection but the improved spatial resolution of the 375 m data provides a greater response over fires of relatively small areas and provides improved mapping of large fire perimeters. The 375 m data also has improved nighttime performance. Consequently, these data are well suited for use in support of fire management (e.g., near real-time alert systems), as well as other science applications requiring improved fire mapping fidelity. Recommended reading: VIIRS 375 m Active Fire Algorithm User Guide (updated December 2015). Download data.

Daily fire spread mapped by 1km Aqua/MODIS (left), 750 m VIIRS (center) and 375 m VIIRS (right) data at the Taim Ecological Reserve in southern Brazil. The data cover the period 26 -31 March 2013. The white outline shows represents the burned area mapped using 30m Landsat-7 on 31 March. This figure is reproduced here courtesy of Wilfred Schroeder, University of Maryland.
Daily fire spread mapped by 1km Aqua/MODIS (left), 750 m VIIRS (center) and 375 m VIIRS (right) data at the Taim Ecological Reserve in southern Brazil. The data cover the period 26 -31 March 2013. The white outline shows represents the burned area mapped using 30m Landsat-7 on 31 March. This figure is reproduced here courtesy of Wilfrid Schroeder, University of Maryland.

Fire Radiative Power (FRP): The 375 m product does not have an FRP value at this time. It is understood that this will be an issue for some users and there are plans to add it in the near future.

Fire products from VIIRS: A complementary VIIRS M-Band 750 m active fire data product is available from the University of Maryland VIIRS Active Fire Web page. FIRMS has opted to distribute the 375 m product rather than the 750 m product as the increased spatial resolution and increased number of fires detected is of interest to the to the broader fire management community.

Attribute fields for NRT VIIRS 375 m active fire data distributed by FIRMS
Attribute
Short Description
Long Description
Latitude Latitude Center of nominal 375 m fire pixel
Longitude Longitude Center of nominal 375 m fire pixel
Bright_ti4 Brightness temperature I-4 VIIRS I-4 channel brightness temperature of the fire pixel measured in Kelvin.
Scan Along Scan pixel size The algorithm produces approximately 375 m pixels at nadir. Scan and track reflect actual pixel size.
Track Along Track pixel size The algorithm produces approximately 375 m pixels at nadir. Scan and track reflect actual pixel size.
Acq_Date Acquisition Date Date of VIIRS acquisition.
Acq_Time Acquisition Time Time of acquisition/overpass of the satellite (in UTC).
Satellite Satellite N= Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP)
Confidence Confidence

This value is based on a collection of intermediate algorithm quantities used in the detection process. It is intended to help users gauge the quality of individual hotspot/fire pixels. Confidence values are set to low, nominal and high. Low confidence daytime fire pixels are typically associated with areas of sun glint and lower relative temperature anomaly (<15K) in the mid-infrared channel I4. Nominal confidence pixels are those free of potential sun glint contamination during the day and marked by strong (>15K) temperature anomaly in either day or nighttime data. High confidence fire pixels are associated with day or nighttime saturated pixels.

Please note: Low confidence nighttime pixels occur only over the geographic area extending from 11deg E to 110 deg W and 7 deg N to 55 deg S. This area describes the region of influence of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly which can cause spurious brightness temperatures in the mid-infrared channel I4 leading to potential false positive alarms. These have been removed from the NRT data distributed by FIRMS.

Version Version (Collection and source) Version identifies the collection (e.g. VIIRS Collection 1) and source of data processing: Near Real-Time (NRT suffix added to collection) or Standard Processing (collection only).
"1.0NRT" - Collection 1 NRT processing.
"1.0" - Collection 1 Standard processing
Bright_ti5 Brightness temperature I-5 I-5 Channel brightness temperature of the fire pixel measured in Kelvin.
FRP Fire Radiative Power

FRP depicts the pixel-integrated fire radiative power in MW (megawatts). Value set to 0 as FRP for VIIRS I Band is not yet available.

DayNight Day or Night

D= Daytime fire, N= Nighttime fire

The VIIRS I-Band 375 m Active Fire Product Algorithm

The VIIRS 375 m active fire product is described in Schroeder et al (2014). The product builds on the MODIS fire product heritage [Kaufman et al., 1998; Giglio et al., 2003 et al.], using a multi-spectral contextual algorithm to identify sub-pixel fire activity and other thermal anomalies in the Level 1 (swath) input data. The algorithm uses all five 375 m VIIRS channels to detect fires and separate land, water, and cloud pixels in the image. Additional 750 m channels complement the available VIIRS multispectral data. Those channels are used as input to the baseline active fire detection product, which provides continuity to the EOS/MODIS 1km Fire and Thermal Anomalies product.

Some Key information about VIIRS

  • VIIRS, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) sensor aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite, crosses the equator at approximately 13:30 PM (ascending node) and 1:30 AM (descending node).
  • The 3,040 km VIIRS swath enables ~15% image overlap between consecutive orbits at the equator, thereby providing full global coverage every 12 hours and mid-latitudes will experience 3-4 looks a day.
  • VIIRS has 5 high resolution Imagery channels (I-bands), 16 moderate resolution channels (M-bands) and a Day/Night Band (DNB).
  • The VIIRS detectors have a constant angular resolution that results in an increasing pixel footprint size as the scan is further from nadir (see figure 1 below). This means the actual area of each scan has the shape of a bow-tie, as consecutive scans overlap away from nadir. The bow-tie effect is reduced during processing through a combination of aggregation and deletion of overlapping pixels.

The VIIRS pixel
The VIIRS pixel

For more information on VIIRS Active data: University of Maryland VIIRS Active Fire Web page.

Last Updated: Sep 29, 2016 at 10:07 AM EDT

Feedback