Severe Storms

Near real-time satellite data are used to revise or confirm 24-hour forecasts related to weather systems approaching the land from the oceans, which in turn gives confidence for flood warnings. Satellite images are also useful in providing everyone with the same 'big picture' of severe storms.

Users can visualize imagery related to floods in Worldview, or download data using the links below

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Read the disclaimer for more information about using the data.

Corrected Reflectance Imagery

Corrected Reflectance Imagery

MODIS and VIIRS Corrected Reflectance imagery are available only as near real-time imagery. The imagery can be visualized in Worldview and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). More:

Information on MODIS Corrected Reflectance Imagery layers including

  • Corrected Reflectance True Color (Bands 1-4-3)
  • Corrected Reflectance (Bands 3-6-7)
  • Corrected Reflectance (Bands 7-2-1)

Information on VIIRS Corrected Reflectance Imagery layers including

  • Corrected Reflectance True Color (Bands I1-M4-M3)
  • Corrected Reflectance (Bands M3-I3-M11)
  • Corrected Reflectance (Bands M11-I2-I1)

Browse Corrected Reflectance imagery in Worldview

For more on the difference between Corrected Reflectance and Surface Reflectance Imagery

Earth at Night

Earth at Night

The Earth at Night shows the earth’s surface and atmosphere using a sensor designed to capture low-light emission sources, under varying illumination conditions. It is displayed as a grey-scale image. Sources of illumination include both natural and anthropogenic sources of light emissions. Lunar reflection can be used to highlight the location and features of clouds and other terrestrial features such as sea ice and snow cover when there is partial to full moon conditions. When there is no moonlight, natural and anthropogenic night time light emissions are highlighted such as city lights, lightning, auroras, fires, gas flares, and fishing fleets. This layer is useful for viewing storms as well as showing patterns of human activity and energy behaviors such as cities and highways, the holiday periods, the tracking of shipping and fishing fleets at night and, the burning of waste natural gas (gas flares) from on and off shore oil/gas production sites.

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

VIIRS (Suomi-NPP)

Coming soon

VIIRS Nighttime Imagery (Day/Night Band, Enhanced Near Constant Contrast)

The VIIRS Nighttime Imagery (Day/Night Band, Enhanced Near Constant Contrast (ENCC)) layer is currently only available as an imagery layer. The sensor resolution is 750 m at nadir, imagery resolution is 500 m, and the temporal resolution is daily.

References: Lee, T., S. Miller, F. Turk, C. Schueler, R. Julian, S. Deyo, P. Dills, and S. Wang, 2006: The NPOESS VIIRS Day/Night Visible Sensor. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 191–199, doi:10.1175/BAMS-87-2-191; The Lights of London. NASA Earth Observatory; Out of the Blue and Into the Black. NASA Earth Observatory; Román, M. O. and Stokes, E. C. (2015), Holidays in lights: Tracking cultural patterns in demand for energy services. Earth's Future, 3: 182–205. doi: 10.1002/2014EF000285

VIIRS DNB ENCC

Land Surface Temperature

Land Surface Temperature

Land Surface Temperature layer shows the temperature of the land surface in Kelvin (K). This measurement differs from air temperature measurements as it provides the temperature of whatever is on the surface of the earth for example, bare sand in the desert, ice and snow covered area, a leaf covered tree canopy and even the temperature of man-made buildings and roads. Land Surface Temperature is useful for monitoring changes in weather and climate patterns and used in agriculture to allow farmers to evaluate water requirements for wheat, or determine frost damage in orange groves.

Product: Instrument, Platform and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

MODIS (Terra) MOD11_L2

MODIS (Aqua) MYD11_L2

MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity

The MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) product is available from both Terra and Aqua satellites. The sensor and imagery resolution is 1 km, and the temporal resolution is daily.

doi: 10.5067/MODIS/MOD11_L2.NRT.006 and doi: 10.5067/MODIS/MYD11_L2.NRT.006

Land Surface Temp (Day/Night)

VIIRS (Suomi-NPP) VNP21_NRT

VIIRS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity
VIIRS/Suomi-NPP Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity 6-Min L2 Swath 750m NRT products doi: 10.5067/VIIRS/VNP21_NRT.001

Coming soon. Browse in LANCE-MODIS

Lightning

Lightning

The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) supplies near real-time lightning data over data-sparse regions, such as oceans, to support operational weather forecasting and warning. The LIS was placed on the International Space Station in Feb 2017 as part of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program (STP)-H5 science and technology development payload. By placing LIS on the space station, which has a highly inclined orbit, a greater geographic range of measurements are obtained than previously measured by TRMM LIS.

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

LIS (ISS)

isslis_p0_nrt

isslig_p0_nrt

Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) Flash Count and Flash Radiance Level

The ISS LIS Flash Count layer provides the number of lightning flashes and the ISS LIS Flash Radiance layer provides the radiance of lightning flashes measured in μJ/sr/m2/μm recorded by the LIS on board the International Space Station (ISS).The ISS LIS provides total lightning measurements between +/- 48 degrees latitude which covers a geographic range that includes nearly all global lightning. ISS LIS monitors total global lightning in both day and night and provides important cross-sensor calibration and validation with the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and ground-based lightning networks.

NRT ISS LIS Provisional Science Data and NRT ISS LIS Provisional Backgrounds

References: GHRC: About ISS LIS Data.

LIS Flash Count and LIS Flash Radiance


Precipitation Estimate

Precipitation Estimate

The AIRS Precipitation Estimate Day/Night layer is an estimate of daily precipitation measured in millimeters (mm) using cloud-related parameters of cloud-top pressure, fractional cloud cover, and cloud-layer relative humidity.

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

AIRS (Aqua)

AIRS2SUP_NRT.006

AIRS Precipitation Estimate

The algorithm is a regression between these parameters and observed precipitation data; it is TOVS-like algorithm intended for merging into the precipitation product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The AIRS Precipitation Estimate layer is a is a variable of the AIRS Level 2 NRT Support Retrieval (AIR2SUP_NRT). The imagery resolution is 2 km and sensor resolution is 45 km. The temporal resolution is daily.

References: GES DISC - AIRS2SUP_NRT: AIRS/Aqua L2 Near Real Time (NRT) Support Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006; GES DISC - Near Real-Time Data

AIRS Precipitation Estimate


Precipitation Rate

Precipitation Rate

LANCE provides the AIRS Precipitation Estimate Day/Night layer which is an estimate of daily precipitation and the AMSR2 surface rain over ocean. Precipitation is formed when water vapor condenses and becomes heavy enough to fall under the force of gravity. The characterization of precipitation over the ocean is important as, unlike on land, there are limited ground/surface stations that measure precipitation in the vast expanses of ocean. IMERG is another NRT precipitation product that users may find useful. it is not listed in the table below as it is not a LANCE product (and does not meet the LANCE latency requirement) but it is visible in Worldview.

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

AIRS (Aqua)

AIRS2SUP_NRT.006

AIRS Precipitation Estimate

The AIRS algorithm estimates daily precipitation in millimeters (mm), using cloud-related parameters of cloud-top pressure, fractional cloud cover, and cloud-layer relative humidity. The algorithm is a regression between these parameters and observed precipitation data; it is TOVS-like algorithm intended for merging into the precipitation product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

The AIRS Precipitation Estimate layer is a is a variable of the AIRS Level 2 NRT Support Retrieval (AIR2SUP_NRT). The imagery resolution is 2 km and sensor resolution is 45 km. The temporal resolution is daily.

References: GES DISC - AIRS2SUP_NRT: AIRS/Aqua L2 Near Real Time (NRT) Support Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006; GES DISC - Near Real-Time Data

AIRS Precipitation Estimate

AMSR2 (GCOM-W1)

A2_RainOcn_NRT

AMSR2 Ocean Surface Rain Rate

The AMSR2 Surface Rain Rate (Day and Night) layers indicate the rate at which rain is falling on the surface of the ocean, and is measured in millimeters per hour (mm/hr). Whereas precipitation includes both the liquid (rain) and solid (snow) forms, this layer only includes rain, the liquid form of precipitation. The characterization of precipitation over the ocean is important as, unlike on land, there are limited ground/surface stations that measure precipitation in the vast expanses of ocean. The surface precipitation layer is useful at different time scales. At a daily time scale, you are able to determine the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Precipitation usually falls in the early morning, local time in the ocean. At longer time scales, you are able to assess the change in regional patterns due to monsoon seasons and global patterns due to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

This layer is part of the GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Level-2B rain and ocean (combined) product, which is calculated by the Goddard PROFiling algorithm (GPROF) 2010 version 2 using resampled brightness temperature (Level-1R) data provided by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The imagery resolution is 2 km and sensor resolution is 5 km. The temporal resolution is daily.

References: NRT AMSR2 L2B Global Swath GSFC Profiling Algorithm 2010; Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and GCOM-W (AMSR2) Rainfall Products; AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Surface Precipitation GSFC Profiling Algorithm, Version 3

Surface Rain Rate

Relative Humidity

Relative Humidity

The AIRS Precipitation Estimate Day/Night layer is an estimate of daily precipitation measured in millimeters (mm) using cloud-related parameters of cloud-top pressure, fractional cloud cover, and cloud-layer relative humidity.

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

AIRS (Aqua)

AIRS2RET_NRT.006

AIRS Relative Humidity

The AIRS Relative Humidity layer indicates the percent relative humidity at varying pressure levels measured in hectopascals (hPa). The vertical profile information produced by the AIRS instrument augments radiosonde data. Most radiosonde launch stations are situated on land, and the AIRS instrument improves this information as it can provide data for locations all over the globe such as large swaths of the ocean that do not have any regular measurements taken. The Relative Humidity layer is available at 500hPa, 700hPa, 850hPa. 500hPa is approximately 5.5 km or 18,000 fee, 700hPa is approximately 3 km or 10,000 feet and 850hPa is approximately 1.5 km or 5,000 feet. This information helps improve world weather observing and in improving the skill in making mid and long range weather forecast.

L2 standard retrieval product using AIRS IR only

AIRS Relative Humidity: 500 hPa Day/Night, 700 hPa Day/Night, 850 hPa Day/Night,


Snow Cover

Snow Cover

The MODIS snow cover layer shows the presence of snow cover over land and water bodies as an index related to the presence of snow. It is based on a Normalized Difference Snow Cover Index (NDSI) that is derived from the cloud free snow reflectance sensed by the MODIS instrument, and hence this layer shows presence of snow during day time and under cloud clear condition only. NDSI snow cover though could be retrieved in the valid range of (0, 1.0) at every pixel, additional tests like surface temperature screening linked with the surface height is used for accurate detection. Snow is precipitation that forms from water vapor in the atmosphere where temperatures are below 0° Celsius. If the ground temperature is also below freezing, snow will accumulate on the ground as bright, white layer of snowpack. Snow cover reflects sunlight back into the atmosphere, helping to cool the Earth’s surface. Snowmelt is used for drinking water, water for crop irrigation, and can moisturize soil to reduce the risk of wildfire in many areas in the world. When snow melts in the spring, too much snow can cause springtime flooding.

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

MODIS (Terra) MOD10_L2

MODIS (Aqua) MYD10_L2

MODIS Snow Cover

The MODIS Snow Cover layer is available from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. The sensor and imagery resolution is 500 m and the temporal resolution is daily. DOI: doi: 10.5067/MODIS/MOD10_L2.NRT.006 and doi: 10.5067/MODIS/MYD10_L2.NRT.006

MODIS Snow Cover


Temperature

Temperature

The AIRS Temperature layer indicates the air temperature at varying pressure levels, measured in Kelvin (K) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Temperature layer indicates the temperature of the atmosphere at the vertical atmospheric pressure level of 46 hectopascals (hPa) and is measured in Kelvin (K).

Product and Download Link

Description

Browse imagery in Worldview

AIRS (Aqua)
AIRS2RET_NRT.006

AIRS Temperature (Day|Night)

The AIRS Temperature layer indicates the air temperature at varying pressure levels, measured in Kelvin (K). The vertical profile information produced by the AIRS instrument augments radiosonde data. Most radiosonde launch stations are situated on land, and the AIRS instrument improves this information as it can provide data for locations all over the globe such as large swaths of the ocean that do not have any regular measurements taken. The Temperature layer is available at 400hPa (hectopascals), 500hPa, 600hPa, 700hPa, 850hPa. 400hPa is approximately 7 km or 23,000 feet, 500hPa is approximately 5.5 km or 18,000 feet, 600hPa is approximately 4 km or 14,000 feet, 700hPa is approximately 3 km or 10,000 feet and 850hPa is approximately 1.5 km or 5,000 feet. This information helps improve world weather observing and in improving the skill in making mid and long range weather forecast. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is an instrument on board the Aqua satellite. The AIRS Temperature science parameter is a parameter of the AIRS Level 2 standard retrieval product using AIRS (AIRS2RET_NRT). The imagery resolution is 2 km and sensor resolution is 45 km. The temporal resolution is twice daily (day and night). References: GES DISC - AIRS2RET_NRT: AIRS/Aqua L2 Near Real Time (NRT) Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006; GES DISC - Near Real-Time Data; NOAA National Weather Service - Radiosonde Observations; AIRS - The AIRS instrument suite physical retrievals,

Temperature: 500 hPa Day|Night, 700 hPa Day|Night 850 hPa Day|Night,

MLS (Aura)
ML2T_NRT.004

MLS Temperature 46hPa (Day|Night)

The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Temperature layer indicates the temperature of the atmosphere at the vertical atmospheric pressure level of 46 hectopascals (hPa) and is measured in Kelvin (K). The MLS instrument measures naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of the Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice.

The MLS Temperature 46hPa layer is derived from the MLS Temperature product (ML2T_NRT) available from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Aura satellite. The sensor resolution is 5 km, imagery resolution is 2 km, and the temporal resolution is daily.

References: GES DISC - ML2T_NRT: MLS/Aura Near-Real-Time L2 Temperature V004; MLS - Temperature Product

Temperature 46 hPa Day|Night

Hurricane Maria in Worldview

Visualize near real-time (NRT) data related to Severe Storms in Worldview

Hurricane Maria moved across the Caribbean in mid-September 2017, making landfall in southeastern Puerto Rico on 20 September 2017. Using the date slider at the bottom of the screen it is possible to track the storm using Worldview. Read more at NASA's Earth Observatory.

Last Updated: May 28, 2019 at 1:07 PM EDT