AIRS data have been used to track propagation of toxic gases like Carbon Monoxide (CO) from massive fires; accurate early warnings of such pollution spikes are useful because they give people the option to reduce their risk of exposure to poor air by limiting outdoor activity at these times. Air quality forecasters use NRT data from LANCE to improve some local and national air quality forecasts.
MODIS imagery are useful for identifying and tracking ash plumes from volcanic eruptions. The use of NRT satellite data for monitoring volcanic plumes is undergoing further developments to enable quantitative retrievals to be produced, which should enable a global capability for volcanic ash monitoring to be introduced.
Agro-climatic monitoring programs and global food security risks are monitored using MODIS NRT data from LANCE. There are several global/regional scale systems in place that report on drought and food shortages including the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET).
Dust storms can have an impact on human health, weather patterns as well as cause disruption through flight delays and the closure of highways. Data from LANCE are used to monitor and predict dust storms. This information is used by agencies within the Department of Defense to improve resource allocation in remote areas and help promote aircraft safety.
NRT MODIS data and imagery enable people on the ground, including those responsible for mobilizing fire-fighting resources around the world, detailed information about the locations of fires.
Note: NRT MODIS fire data are available in easy to use formats through FIRMS.
Mapping floodwater extent for active floods is critical for local and regional officials and for disaster relief organizations that need to ascertain where to focus their efforts. LANCE provides data to the Dartmouth Flood Observatory and the NRT Global MODIS Flood Mapping initiative.
MODIS data are used to revise or confirm 24-hour forecasts related to weather systems approaching the land from the oceans, which in turn gives confidence for flood warnings. Satellite images are also useful in providing everyone with the same 'big picture' of severe storms.
In polar regions, NRT MODIS images provided by LANCE are routinely used by the Polar Geospatial Center, in combination with other data, to provide up to date information on ice conditions to ships and research vessels.
MODIS true color imagery are frequently used to track the source, duration and transport of smoke plumes across large areas. It is not uncommon for smoke from large wildfires to be lofted high enough into the atmosphere that winds push plumes long distances; a process that can often be tracked in near real-time using data from LANCE.
NDVI images produced from LANCE data are used to monitor vegetation and crop condition. USDA FAS crop forecasters routinely vegetation indices produced by the Global Agricultural Monitoring project using data from LANCE to better predict crop yields. Groups such as FAO Desert Locust Information Service flag anomalies in vegetation.